Decorative ribbon wholesale : Decorating ideas for easter
Decorative Ribbon Wholesale
- Serving to make something look more attractive; ornamental
- Relating to decoration
- cosmetic: serving an esthetic rather than a useful purpose; "cosmetic fenders on cars"; "the buildings were utilitarian rather than decorative"
- sweeping: ignoring distinctions; "sweeping generalizations"; "wholesale destruction"
- Sell (goods) in large quantities at low prices to be retailed by others
- the selling of goods to merchants; usually in large quantities for resale to consumers
- A long, narrow strip of fabric, used esp. for tying something or for decoration
- a long strip of inked material for making characters on paper with a typewriter
- A long, narrow strip of something
- any long object resembling a thin line; "a mere ribbon of land"; "the lighted ribbon of traffic"; "from the air the road was a grey thread"; "a thread of smoke climbed upward"
- A strip of fabric of a special color or design awarded as a prize or worn to indicate the holding of an honor, esp. a small multicolored piece of ribbon worn in place of the medal it represents
- decoration: an award for winning a championship or commemorating some other event
Domino Sugar Factory
View from the East River Ferry, East River, New York City, New York, United States
Sugar production was Brooklyn's most important industry in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Of various factories that once lined the East River, the former Havemeyers & Elder Refinery, later known as the Domino Sugar Refinery, is the largest and most significant structure to survive. The three conjoined properties - the Filter House, Pan House, and Finishing House - are located on Kent Avenue in Williamsburg, between South 2nd Street and South 3rd
Street. The Filter House, which was once the tallest structure on the Brooklyn waterfront, rises to a height of approximately 155 feet. The processing of the raw sugar began in this building, where it was mixed with water and filtered through canvas and charcoal. As foreign materials were removed, the solution flowed to the Pan House, a nine-story structure at the southwest corner of Kent Avenue and South 2nd Street. Then reduced to syrup, it was pumped to the Finishing House to be dried and graded for sale.
Frederick C. Havemeyer, Jr., son of the company's founder, first began operating a refinery in Williamsburg during 1856. Raw sugar was supplied from America's deep south, mainly Louisiana, and the Caribbean, where it was primarily harvested by slaves. Though slavery ended in the United States in 1865, it continued in Cuba, the world's largest exporter of raw sugar, until 1886. Most accounts of the refinery state that the Filter, Pan & Finishing House were built to replace an earlier facility that was destroyed by fire. Research, however, indicates that plans for the Filter House had already been filed with the Brooklyn Bureau of Buildings two months earlier, in November 1881. This building, as well as the Pan & Finishing House, was designed by Frederick's eldest son, Theodore A. Havemeyer, in association with Thomas Winslow and J. E. James, who are variously listed in contemporary journals as architects and builders.
Like many contemporary industrial buildings, it was designed in the American round-arch style, a variant of the German Rundbogenstil and the Romanesque Revival style. Rooted in practical needs, the new refinery was conceived to be as fireproof as possible, with iron columns, beams and girders, as well as four hundred electric lights. A large oval smokestack dominates the west fa9ade of the Filter House, facing Manhattan. Though the base of the chimney is original, most of the section that rises above the roof was added following a major expansion during the 1920s. Planned to produce at least 1,200 tons of sugar each day, the refinery's capacity gave the company a considerable competitive edge, allowing it to dominate the American market for several decades. This leverage also led to the creation of the Sugar Refineries Company in 1887.
Originally consisting of as many as twenty firms, it was a monopoly that sought to control labor costs and prices. Renamed the American Sugar Refining Company in 1891, the "Domino" brand name was introduced in 1901. The Williamsburg refinery was sold to Tate & Lyle in 1988 and renamed the Domino Sugar Corporation in 1991. In subsequent years, the company ceased refining raw sugar at this location and the three buildings became vacant. The plant closed in 2004 and the site was acquired by C. P. C. Resources, the development arm of the Community Preservation Corporation.
DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS
The Havemeyers and Sugar Refining in the United States
At the start of the twentieth century, the Havemeyer family was said to control ninety-eight per cent of sugar production in the United States. Headquartered in Manhattan's financial district, the business was based in Brooklyn where an immense refinery dominated the Williamsburg waterfront. The largest buildings, the Filter, Pan & Finishing House - sometimes collectively called the Processing House - stood steps from the East River and were visible from much of Manhattan's East Side. Active day and night, these large brick structures were powerful symbols of industry in Brooklyn and the accomplishments of the Havemeyer family.
As a predecessor to the American Sugar Refining Company, later called the Domino Sugar Corporation and Amstar, Havemeyers & Elder helped develop the sugar refining techniques used today. As early as 1876, it was reported:
The history of sugar refining in the western hemisphere is completely epitomized in giving the history of the founding, rise and growth of the house of Havemeyers & Elder, now the largest in the world.
The Williamsburg refinery traces its roots to Manhattan in the early nineteenth century. Born in Germany, cousins William (1770-1851) and Frederick Christian Havemeyer (1774-1841) worked as sugar bakers in London before immigrating to the United States in 1799. After a brief period with Edmund Seaman and Company, the city's first sugar boiler, they established their own refine
Madison Square North, Manhattan
The Wilbraham, built in 1888-90 as a bachelor apartment hotel, was commissioned by prominent Scottish-American jeweler William Moir as a real estate investment. It was designed by the versatile New York architectural firm of D. & J. Jardine, whose principals, David and John Jardine, were brothers and also of Scottish birth. Located at the northwest corner of Fifth Avenue and West 30th Street, the Wilbraham is eight stories high (plus basement and penthouse) and crowned by a mansard roof. Clad in a handsome combination of Philadelphia brick, Belleville brownstone, and cast iron, the Wilbraham is extraordinarily well-detailed and reflects the influence of the Romanesque Revival style in the rock-faced stonework and excellent, intricately carved stone detail.
The Real Estate Record and Guide in 1890 called it "quite an imposing piece of architecture." The building's two-story shopfront housed the famous china and glassware importing firm of Gilman Collamore & Co. from 1890 to about 1920. The Wilbraham was constructed when this area was changing due to the inroads of commerce, but was still fashionable for clubs, theaters, apartments, and hotels.
The bachelor apartment hotel, or "bachelor flats," was a multiple dwelling building type that arose in the 1870s to serve the city's very large population of single men. The Wilbraham catered to professional men of means. Each apartment contained a two-room suite with a bathroom but no kitchen; a residents' dining room was provided on the eighth floor. In 1934-35, the apartments were remodeled to include kitchens, and the building ceased to operate solely as bachelor flats. The Wilbraham, an outstanding extant example of the bachelor apartment hotel building type, has remained in residential use.
DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS
Fifth Avenue, from 23rd to 34th Streets, in the 19th Century
By 1837, Fifth Avenue was extended north of 23rd Street to 42nd Street, and the surrounding land was sold as building lots. Madison Square, formerly part of "The Parade" and located on the east side of the avenue between 23rd and 26th Streets, was reserved as a park and opened in 1847. Gradually, New York's elite moved "uptown" as they escaped the encroachment of commerce farther downtown, and Fifth Avenue in this area became the most fashionable address and home to the some of the city's wealthiest individuals.2 Most of the residences along the avenue were speculatively-built brownstones. Numerous churches also located in this vicinity.
Amos R. Eno's Fifth Avenue Hotel (1856-59, Griffith Thomas, with William Washburn; demolished 1908), at Fifth Avenue and 23rd Street across from Madison Square, was initially dubbed "Eno's Folly" because it was built so far north. It soon became one of the most famous hotels in the city and spurred construction of other hotels west and northwest of Madison Square (particularly in the triangle formed by the intersection of Fifth Avenue with the diagonal of Broadway).
This district contained the city's best hotels, as well as men's social clubs that followed their constituents uptown. Apartment houses and apartment hotels began to appear on the avenue in the early 1870s. In 1876, Delmonico's, the well-known restaurant, moved to 212-214 Fifth Avenue (at 26th Street). By the 1870s, the theater district also relocated northward from Union Square to the Madison Square vicinity.
Madison Square Garden, opened in 1879 at Madison Avenue and 26th Street and replaced with a new building (1889-91, McKim, Mead & White; demolished 1925), became one of the nation's premiere theater and entertainment centers. The shopping area known as Ladies' Mile developed to the south between 14th and 23rd Streets, with the great department stores along Sixth Avenue and retail shops extending east to and along Broadway.
Fifth Avenue in the late 19th century was also at the eastern edge of the legendary and crime-ridden section of midtown Manhattan known as "the Tenderloin," roughly bounded by 23rd and 42nd Streets and Fifth and Seventh Avenues (by the turn of the century, it extended northward and westward).
Beginning in the 1880s, as commerce encroached and the exclusivity of the area faded, many prominent New York families moved farther up Fifth Avenue around Central Park.
Hotels and apartment houses continued to be built in the vicinity. The Knickerbocker Apartments (1882-84, Charles W. Clinton, demolished), 243-249 Fifth Avenue (at 28th Street), was a luxury building that included one floor of bachelor apartments. Holland House (1891, Harding & Gooch), 274-280 Fifth Avenue (at 30th Street), was for a brief period the most opulent and luxurious hotel in the city. This was surpassed by the Waldorf Hotel (1891-93, Henry J. Hardenbergh), expanded in 1895-97 as the Waldorf-Astoria, also by Hardenbergh (now demolished), which was on the site of the Astor residences.
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